MERIC NEWS LETTER



African-American Contributions to Missouri's Economy







African-Americans have made invaluable contributions to the state’s economy. To wrap up Black History Month, MERIC presents statistics highlighting this population and their accomplishments:

African-American Economic History Timeline
Represents highlights only and not meant to be an inclusive look at African-American economic history.

Click here for an timeline of African-Americans in Missouri.

1619
African slaves arrive in Jamestown; backbone of Southern economy for centuries

1720
Slavery introduced to Missouri

1773
Jean Baptiste Pointe Du Sable, pioneer and explorer, builds Lake Michigan trading post that becomes Chicago

1810
Afro-American Insurance Company founded in Philadelphia; first known insurance firm owned and managed by African-Americans

1821
Thomas L. Jennings, first known African-American patent holder, for a dry-cleaning process. Sarah E. Goode, 1885, first African-American woman to receive patent, folding bed

1837
Frank Johnson’s dance orchestra of Philadelphia tours England; believed to be first American band of any color to do so

1845
Macon B. Allen becomes first licensed African-American lawyer when admitted to the bar in Massachusetts. Shortly thereafter, Allen becomes first African-American justice of the peace

1848
William Liedesdorff, shipping magnate, San Francisco, believed first African-American millionaire

1862
Slavery abolished in Washington, D.C.

1865
Slavery abolished in Missouri

1866
Lincoln Institute founded in Jefferson City by members of the 62nd and 65th United States Colored Infantry

1867
Augusta Institute, later Morehouse College, founded in Atlanta; Howard University in Washington, D.C.

1881
Tuskegee Institute, home to new generation of entrepreneurs and educators, founded by Booker T. Washington

1891
Provident Hospital, first true
African-American hospital, founded in Chicago by Dr. Daniel Hale Williams (later, Provident Hospital School of Nursing); foundation for Midwestern African-American healthcare. Dr. Williams conducts first known successful open-heart surgery there in 1893

Late 1800s- 1920s
Elijah McCoy has 57 patents for products (especially heavy machinery) so reliable they are origin of term "the real McCoy"

1900-1920
Golden age of African-American entrepreneurship in Kansas City
http://www.blackarchives.org/time/mohistory.htm
go to "Kansas City's Entrepreneurship 1900-1920"

Early 1900s-1930s
George Washington Carver, born in Newton County in 1864 or 1865, develops hundreds of industrial uses for peanuts, sweet potatoes, soybeans; new type of cotton; credited with first true biofuel and for introducing crop rotation to farmers in the South

1900
Harlem Renaissance poet James Weldon Johnson composes lyrics to "Lift Ev'ry Voice and Sing", commonly known as "Negro (or Black) National Anthem"


1905
Niagara Movement founded by W.E.B. Dubois, others, to promote full civil liberties and an end to racial discrimination; group becomes NAACP in 1909

1905
Chicago Defender, largest and most influential African-American newspaper of early 20th century, founded

1910
National Urban League founded

1912
St. Louis Argus founded by Joseph E. Mitchell and George Vaughan; still published today

1915
Lincoln Motion Picture Company, believed to be first African-American production company, founded in Los Angeles

1918
African-American architect Vertner Woodson Tandy, believed to be first African-American architect licensed in New York State, designs mansion for African-American cosmetics magnate Madame C. J. Walker, believed to be first African-American female millionaire (hair straightening products), Hudson River north of New York City

1919
Kansas City Call founded by Chester A. Franklin; also still published

1923
Businessman/inventor Garrett A. Morgan patents the traffic signal

1925
A. Phillip Randolph organizes Brotherhood of Sleeping Porters; considered first true African-American union

1932
James W. Ford, first African-American on a presidential ticket, Communist Party USA, vice president

1944
United Negro College Fund founded

1948
President Truman orders integration of all U.S. armed forces

1954
Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka (Kan.): U.S. Supreme Court
outlaws racial segregation of public education. Separate but equal legal doctrine dead

1956
"The Nat King Cole Show" debuts, first African-American-hosted network television show

1982
John Harold Johnson (Ebony, Jet), first African-American on Forbes 400 list of richest Americans

1986
"The Oprah Winfrey Show" debuts in Chicago. Forbes says the q
ueen of all media is now worth $1.3 billion

2001
Robert Johnson (Black Entertainment Television network) declared first African-American billionaire

2007
Year of the African-American CEO: Kenneth Chenault, American Express; E. Stanley O'Neal, Merrill Lynch; Richard Parsons, AOL Time Warner -- and Ephren Taylor, 24, youngest African-American CEO ever, City Capital Corporation and AmoroCorp
 

Sources: US Census Bureau American Community Survey 2005 and 2002 Survey of Business Owners; Missouri Secretary of State Archives; historymakers.com; Black Archives of Mid-America; African American Odyssey; wikipedia; yahoo news; forbes.com

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